Cancer is one of the major global health problems, it is the second leading cause of death worldwide after heart disease. Leukemia is one of the top ten cancer killers. It is a blood condition caused by a disorder in the cell development process. Advanced glycation end products (AGE) and oxidative stress are two main risk play a crucial role in the development and progression of cancer. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of AGE and oxidative stress on leukemia patients to find the relationship between AGE parameters with oxidative stress and antioxidants. This study was conducted at Nanakali Hospital for Blood Diseases and Cancer in Erbil City. Blood samples included 80 individuals, they were collected from 50 patients (20 females and 30 males) children, men and women who had leukemia as a patient group. The other samples were collected from 30 subjects (12 females and 18 males) as control group who had no leukemia. The Victims ranged in age from (4-75) years of age and the control groups were aged between (17-49) years old.
The results of this study show that the median serum levels of Carboxymethyl-Lysine CML and Pyrraline in patients with Leukemia are 479.3 (411.1, 545.4) ng/ml and 155.5 (145.4,182.3) pg/ml, and in healthy group they are 355.1 (322.1, 402.6) ng/ml and 156.9 (137.3, 179.0) pg/ml respectively. CML is significantly increased in patients with leukemia compared with healthy group, while the serum level of Pyrraline was more or less similar to control group. The median serum level of oxidative stress parameter malondialdehyde MDA was considerably higher in Leukemia patients which counted 175.7 (160.8, 191.8) ng/ml comparing with healthy group 162.7 (145.1, 185.8) ng/ml, whereas the median serum level of nitric oxide NO in patients 105.7 (91.18, 147.4) μmol/ L insignificantly decreased compared to the healthy groups which counted 119.3 (96.66,192.6) μmol/ L. The result shows the current study levels of SOD and CAT is insignificantly elevated in patients with leukemia 1.111 (0.8918, 1.478), 6.857 (6.281, 7.425) ng/ml compared to control group 0.9749 (0.7927,1.258), 6.697 (6.088, 8.206) ng/ml respectively, while the mean serum level of GSH significantly increased in patient’s leukemia 5.772 ± 0.3615 μg/ml compared to control group 4.195 ± 0.5923 μg/ml.
The data of this study showed that there are positive and significant correlation between serum CML and MDA (r= 0.3487). Whereas, there are negative (but no significant) correlations between serum CML, NO and CAT their correlation coefficients (r) values are (r=-0.1246), (r= -0.01338). There are positive (but not significant) correlations between serum CML and SOD, GSH, their correlation coefficients (r) values are (r= 0.1508, r= 0.2302) respectively. Also, this study showed there is significantly positive correlation between serum pyrraline with MDA and GSH their correlation coefficient (r) values are (r= 0.3838), (r= 0.3371). There are positive (but no significant) correlations between serum pyrraline with NO, CAT and SOD, the correlation coefficient (r) values for serum pyrraline with NO, CAT and SOD are (r= 0.1722, r= 0.02543, r= 0.001126) respectively.
ROC curve analysis shows that serum CML is a potential biomarker for Leukemia with AUC (0.8390), whereas, the AUC of Pyrraline, NO and MDA were 0.5101, 0.5843 and 0.6492.