This thesis examines the dispersion of NO2 and SO2 in the oil and gas sector. It looks at the effects of these two gases on the environment and health and explores the factors that affect the dispersion of the gases in atmosphere. The thesis starts by looking at the sources of these two gases and their impact on the atmosphere. It then goes into the methods used to measure the concentrations of these gases and the techniques used to reduce their emission. Finally, it looks at the challenges that still exist in reducing the emission of these two gases from oil and gas activities. The thesis concludes with recommendations for mitigation of NO2 and SO2 emissions from oil and gas activities.
This study was conducted during autumn and winter seasons (September 2021 to March 2022), to study dispersion of atmospheric pollutants sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in fourteen locations around the oil and gas operation and production in high complex terrain region.
In fourteen selected locations for determine the concentration of SO2 and NO2, the concentration of the first gas was between 4.37- 26.39 ppb, while the second gas was ranged from 3.09 – 8.94 ppb.
In term of SO2 and NO2 mean values the significant differences (p≥ 0.05) was observed between studied locations shilya road area and each of the (ECP 1, ABC Camp, ATOC, CPF, ROW, C pad and ECP 3), independent on oil and gas production, since their p-values less than α=0.05, where the shilya road is the nearest main road of crude oil transportation by trucks which is mostly exposed to SO2 from diesel heavy vehicle.
There is a statistically significant difference between the mean of ECP 1 Area and each of the (A pad, CPF, E pad, and ECP 3) for the SO2 levels independently for oil and gas production area since their p-values are less than α=0.05. ECP1 located in low elevations in compare with some other locations where is the point of stopping heavy vehicle prior enter to oil and gas company. Moreover, there is a significant differences between the mean of Waste Water Pit Area and each of the (ATOC, ROW, C pad, ECP 3, CPF and E pad) ; ABC Camp Area and each of the (A pad, CPF, E pad, ATOC, C pad and ECP 3); a pad Area and each of the (ATOC, ECP 2, G pad, ROW, C pad, C pad, and ECP 3); ATOC Area and each of the (ECP 2, G pad, E pad, ECP 3); CPF Area and each of the (ECP 2, G pad, ROW, C pad, and ECP 3); ECP2 Area and each of the (E pad, C pad and ECP 3); G-pad Area and each of the (E pad, C pad and ECP 3); E pad Area and each of the (ROW, C pad, and ECP3); ROW Area and ECP3 for oil and gas production area and between the mean of C-pad Area and ECP3 for oil and gas production area independently for oil and gas production.