Numerical Study on the Thermal Dynamics of Gold Nanoparticles in Laser-Induced Hyperthermia for Breast Tumor Therapy

SUMMARY

Laser hyperthermia treatment of cancer tissue is widely used in cancer treatment to destroy cancer cells. This study focused on the temperature profile heat transfer in breast tumor to minimize the damage of the tissues resulting from extra heat applied. Gold nanoparticle-assisted laser was used to investigate the influence of nanoparticles on the spatial distribution of temperature in the tumor and healthy tissues. The vital feature of this method is the heating of breast tumor to raise its temperature to hyperthermia range for destroying tumor cells without harming surrounding tissue or healthy tissue. Accurate simulations and solving Penne’s bio-heat transfer equation were used to explain and model the thermal tumor breast cancer in the presence of gold nanoparticles. For heat generation in the range of hyperthermia in the breast tumor, some particular sizes and concentrations of the nanoparticles were selected. A CW Gaussian laser beam is used as a heat source to produce hyperthermia in 2 sec.  It was considered that the breast tumor has radius of 0.5 cm and cross-section area was (0.0015708 m2). Spherical and rod shapes of Au NPs, from 109 to 1016 nanoparticles, were used and injected in the tumor to enhance the tumor temperature. It was found that temperature of the tumor increased from 316 K (42.85 °C) to 360 K (86.85 °C), for the same number of gold nanoparticles, same tumor and laser properties. In the case of the same number of the Au NPs but two different shapes (Spherical and rod shapes), almost identical temperature with different profile at the center of the tumor was observed. It was concluded that the penetration depth of the breast tumor is different from that of the healthy tissue. Finally, it can be concluded that the thermal dynamic of the Au NPs via CW laser produce hyperthermia in the breast tumor and it can be used in breast tumor therapy without causing further harm to the healthy tissue.